Updated 11 Oct 2019

GMDSS Operational zones

For the purpose of GMDSS, four operational zones have been established, loosely based on distance from shore and in range of…


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Updated 11 Oct 2019

VDES

As the IMO further develops the concept of e-navigation, a potential new technology that is sometimes referred to as ‘AIS on…

Updated 11 Oct 2019

Ship security alert system (SSAS)

Following the terrorist attacks in New York in September 2001, the IMO Diplomatic Conference on Maritime Security held in…

Updated 11 Oct 2019

Modern communications basics

The growing importance of VSAT in marine communications underlines the fact that despite its conservative image, shipping has…

Updated 11 Oct 2019

Early satellite history

As far as shipping is concerned, the satellite communications era began with the establishment in the 1970s of Inmarsat a…

Updated 11 Oct 2019

The satellite and radio spectrum

Both conventional radio and satellite communications received and transmit electromagnetic signals or radio waves. The length…

Updated 11 Oct 2019

Maritime communications equipment

Although there is still a place in modern shipping for much older communications systems such as flags, lamps and sounds, these…

Updated 11 Oct 2019

Basic protection against cyberattack

In addition to all of the advice issued by shipping bodies there is a much wider choice of general advice available from other…

Updated 11 Oct 2019

Cyber Security

When communications were only about voice transmissions and Morse code sound signals, the only danger to a ship’s operation and…

Updated 11 Oct 2019

Cyber security strategies

Cyber security strategies need to take into account two very different types of target and reasons for attack – deliberate or…

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